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  1. A Universal RFID Key
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  4. A Universal RFID Key: 9 Steps (with Pictures)
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However, past studies indicated that the location of the tag on a vehicle can affect performance of RFID technology. For example, North Texas Toll Authority NTTA, identified some vehicle features that affect RFID tag performance as being windshield mirror with lane departure warning system, heated windshield, insulated or insta-clear glass, and solar control. Additionally, RFID specifications indicated that the technology performed better when the tags or readers are not located low to the ground RF Code, This indicates that tag locations on the vehicle have influence on RFID performance.

Additionally, a literature review revealed that most readers have an anti-collision system that allows readers to read multiple tags simultaneously. This may result in a tag over-shadowing effect, particularly in situations where vehicles with RFID tag are close to each other such as in a traffic queue or at toll facilities. Understanding such effect is important for further implementation of this technology in transportation related applications.

Based on the foregoing discussion, this paper has two specific objectives. First, investigate the performance of RFID technology by varying 1 tag locations on the vehicle, 2 reader mounting locations on a signpost, 3 vehicle speed, and 4 horizontal distance between the tag and reader; and, second, investigate the effect of tag over-shadowing on RFID performance.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 3 first discusses the site characteristics, and then presents the field testing or data collection.

A Universal RFID Key

The first part of the results subsection reports on different scenarios that encompass the combination of tag location, reader location from the ground, and whether tags were simultaneous or not. The second part of the results-subsection reports on the regression analysis. Finally, highlights on what has been learned from this experimental study on the effect of tag and reader location, driving speed, and over-shadowing effects on performance of RFID technology is presented on conclusions and recommendations for future research section.

RFID technology uses radio waves to exchange information between the transponder and the reader. Depending on mobility, RFID readers are classified as fixed or mobile. Fixed readers detect tag activity while stationary and typically have higher a reading range whereas mobile readers sense tag availability while mounted on a vehicle or any moving object.

On the other hand, RFID tags are classified based on the way they receive power. Active tags are battery powered, semi-active tags are semi-battery powered, and passive tags are non-battery powered. The choice of tag for a particular application depends mainly on its cost, reliability, and capability.

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Passive tags are cheaper compared to semi-active and active tags. Typically, information exchange between active tags to active readers is much more reliable than from passive tags. Many active tags today have operational ranges of hundreds of meters, and a battery life of up to 10 years Lodgher et al, Further, tags are classified as read only or read-write. The former are programmed with a unique ID that can never be changed and read-write allows the user to add or write over existing information when the tag is within range of the reader. The factors used for selecting a suitable site for testing to achieve the objectives of the study were geometric characteristics, posted speed limit, traffic volume, and presence of metal traffic signs.

In this study, a roadway with a speed limit of 55 mph, low traffic volume, and metal traffic signs was selected for conducting the test run demonstrations. This roadway was selected because it has low traffic volume and favorable roadway geometric characteristics that allows for high-speed dynamic testing. Further, the site has driveways in its vicinity to facilitate turning of the test vehicle once it has passed the interrogation zone.

Although freeways offer high speed, they were excluded from consideration due to their limited access and high traffic volume. The selected site has the following characteristics: two-way highway with 12ft lanes and 6 ft shoulder; traffic sign is 9 ft from the shoulder and 20 ft from the center of the road; posted speed limit is 55mph; and the traffic sign is 8 ft high. The process of field testing was carried out after determining data needs, creating data collection protocol, and identifying equipment needed.

The main materials needed for the testing were the reader, laptop, power source, RFID tags, and adhesive. To test a wide range of scenarios, the study considered several variables that may affect the readability of the RFID tag. The tag locations tested were the windshield, door handle, and license plate, which were about 5. The windshield and license plate are locations that are widely used in practice to attach tags. For the reader placement on a traffic sign, scenarios tested included setting the reader at a height of about 4 feet and 7 feet above ground level.

The two heights where chosen to represent different types of traffic control devices that are in use such as delineators, mile markers, speed limit signs, etc. The vehicle speeds tested included 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 mph. At 35mph, the detection rate was very low, and therefore, higher speeds were not tested. For each height of tag and reader placement, three 3 different speeds were tested each for 10 runs.

Arduino Tutorial: RFID Tutorial RC522 with an Arduino Uno and an OLED display from ethdoymulida.cf

This step was repeated 10 times on a two-lane road in each direction to examine the effect of horizontal distance on detection rate and signal strength. Figure 1 presents the tag readability results for scenario 1.

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The chart shows a clear relationship between the selected variables and readability of the tags. Each tag position had 60 runs in total resulting from ten trials, three different speeds, and each driving direction, that was north and south bound. As observed from the figure, with respect to tag location, the windshield had higher reading rates of For windshield, the detection rate is higher at low speeds and lower at high speeds.

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At 15 mph, the detection rate was 90 percent whereas at 30 mph the detection rate was 50 percent. A similar trend was observed for the license plate; at 15 mph the detection rate was 40 percent and 15 percent at 30 mph. The detection rate for a tag on the license plate showed an unexpected trend.

The tag was detected at 10 mph with a 15 percent detection rate but none at 15 mph and a 5 percent detection rate at 20 mph. Reasons for this trend are unclear and therefore further research is required. In general, with respect to speed, detection rate decreases with the increase in speed and this is consistent with results of other studies Yates, ; Fedrowitz, With regard to signal strength, windshield and door handle yielded the highest values compared to the license plate and this was in line with the readability trend.

Figure 2 depicts the results for the reader mounted at 7 feet above the ground on a metal traffic sign. The detection rate with a tag on the windshield was Similar results occurred for a tag on the door handle and license plate. The detection rates for door handle and license plate were Add to cart.


A Universal RFID Key: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

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Great reader, low price can read HID cards. Currently installing 5th one. Too bad they don't have a compact size one like HID reader. It's not often that a product is exactly what you need - but this is one of those times.

  • RFID Reader ID ( kHz) - SEN - SparkFun Electronics.
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  • Managing the Number of Tag Bits Transmitted in a Bit-Tracking RFID Collision Resolution Protocol.
  • I needed a way to read RFID badges from a web page. Other devices we tried required device drivers, browser plug-ins and all sorts of custom programming. This one, however, simply acts like a keyboard - put an RFID tag within a few inches, and it "types" the tag's internal serial number wherever the cursor is. Works on Windows, Mac and Linux with exactly zero software to install.

    Perfect for my needs, and delivered faster than expected EDIT: Much to my dismay, the device suddenly stopped working after a few hours of use, but I was totally impressed with the vendor's support. They asked me to send them a photo of the defective unit, and they shipped me out a new one the very next day. Awesome job! Only 18 left in stock - order soon. The device is much larger than looks on the photo. Search for: Search. Search Search for: Search. Call Us. Radio Frequency Identification RFID technology is an automated data capture technology that identifies labeled or tagged objects wirelessly.

    How do RFID tags work?

    Ttl rfid reader arduino

    If there are different radio frequencies used with RFID tags, how do you know which is the best? UHF — MHz has longer read range, generally 8 feet, faster read rates and is more commonly used for inventory applications, HF Is RFID a "plug and play" technology? Is RFID reliable? Isn't an application specific design going to be expensive? What are some of the common standards used in RFID applications?

    Tags using this standard operate in three distinct frequency bands — MHz for communication in the European Union — MHz for communication in North and South America, as well as multiple Asian countries — MHz for communication in Japan. How can RFID implementation help my business?